Is that 6 a.m. workout getting in the way of good sleep? Don’t think your fat cells won’t notice. A new study published in The Annals of Internal Medicine (a medical journal) finds that inadequate shut-eye has a harmful effect on fat cells, reducing their ability to respond to insulin(胰岛素) by about 30 percent. Over the long-term, this decreased response could set the stage for type-2 diabetes (a medical condition in which someone has too much sugar in his or her blood), fatty liver disease and weight gain.
The study adds to a growing body of evidence that there’s “an intimate relationship between the amount of sleep we get and our ability to maintain a good, healthy body weight,” says sleep expert Helene Emsellem, director of the Center for Sleep and Wake Disorders in Chevy Chase, Maryland. (76) But Americans don’t seem to be getting the message that we need seven to nine hours per night. More than 1 in 5 of us, according to a report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is getting six or fewer hours of sleep per night, on average.
So how did researchers study fat cells in the Annals paper? Matthew Brady OF THE University of Chicago and a group of colleagues selected and persuaded seven volunteers to take part in the research project. They were all young, thin and healthy and agreed to sleep for eight nights in a sleep lab. “For four nights they were allowed to stay in bed for 8.5 hours a night,” says Brady. Then, a month later, they came back for four additional nights—but this time they were allowed just 4.5 hours of sleep per night. And after each visit, researchers got a sample of their fat. (77) Brady explains that the fat cells responded significantly to the loss of sleep. “I was very surprised to be honest,” he says.
Bad things can happen when fat cells become less responsive to insulin. “Fat cells are actually your friend,” he says. “They’re there to store lipids(血脂).” When lipids stay inside the cells, your body can utilize the fat when you’re exercising or sleeping or going about your day. “However, when fat cells start to become insulin resistant, the lipids start to leach out of the fat cells and rise in the bloodstream,” Brady says.
1 According to the passage, lack of sleep for a long while can probably lead to all of the following EXCEPT_____.
A heart disease B weight gain C diabetes D liver disease
2 The main idea of the third paragraph is ___.
A how to write a medical research paper
B how to avoid sleep loss
C how the research was conducted
D how to conduct a medical experiment
3 What does the word “leach” in the last paragraph probably mean?
A leap B lead C lean D leak
4 Which of the following is NOT TRUE according to the passage?
A We will be in trouble if our fat cells become less responsive to insulin.
B More and more studies are done to study the link between sleep and weight.
C More than 20% of Americans are not getting enough sleep.
D Fat cells are there to help us maintain a good health.
5 Which of the following is an appropriate title for this passage?
A Poor Sleep May Lead to Too Much Stored Fat and Disease
B Sleep Experts Had Exciting Findings in a Fat Study
C Americans Should Have More Than Six Hours of Sleep
D Bad Things Happen if Fat Cells Become Our Friend
The top of the world is a wonderland. In winter, the temperature often falls to -30℉ and the sun never rises. The ocean is surrounded by frozen ground. There re few people or trees, but to polar bears, the Arctic(北极)is home.
(78) Polar bears have thick fur, big paws and other features that make them well prepared for life in their tough environment. In fact, they need the Arctic sea ice for survival. But climate change is causing larger and larger areas of summer sea ice to melt(融化). Experts say that if warming patterns continue, the Arctic could be free of summer sea ice by 2050. That may cause two-thirds of the world’s 20,000 polar bears to be gone by then too.
Polar bears can’t survive for long on land. Seals are their main source of food. The only place where polar bears can hunt seals is on the ice. (79) Although these bears are strong simmer, they are no match for lightning swift seals in the water. A polar bear has brilliantly clever strategies to overcome this disadvantage. In winter the bear waits motionless beside a seal’s breathing hole, which is a narrow tunnel through the ice. Often many hours pass before the seal comes up for air and the bear kills it with a powerful blow of its paw. In summer, the polar bears that live on land eat very little and wait for the sea ice to return.
With the sea ice forming later in the year and melting earlier, polar bears do not have enough opportunity to hunt and eat. Less sea ice makes it harder for the bears to catch the seals. The bears must swim longer distances between ice packs(大片浮冰), and they can’t always make it. The ice is also getting thinner. These conditions can cause polar-bear cubs to become separated from their mothers, who provide them with food.
Steven Amstrup is the chief scientist of Polar Bears International. The group aims to save the bears and their home. “The more people who see polar bears and understand their difficult situation, the better the chance we’ll alter our warming path in time to save them.” he says.
6 Which is the best title for the passage?
A Climate Change in the Arctic B How to Protect the Environment
C The Arctic Is Home to Polar Bears
D Polar Bears in Danger
7 Where do polar bears usually hunt seals?
A On land B In open water C In openings in the sea ice
D At the bottom of the sea
8 The word “cubs” in the fourth paragraph is closest in meaning to ____.
A adults B babies
C hunters D enemies
9 According to the passage, which of the following statements is TRUE?
A Starving polar bears are increasingly coming into villages, where they may be killed either for food or safety.
B Polar bears can spend their entire lives on land if the sea melts completely.
C Two-thirds of the world’s polar bears may disappear by 2050 as global warming continues.
D The growing distance between ice packs is not a problem for polar bears, because they are excellent swimmers.
10 What’s the mission of Polar Bears International?
A Saving energy
B Conducing scientific research
C Seeking international
D Saving polar bears and their home
Imagine a school that expected its students to become literate(有读写能力的)without any formal instruction. Most parents would be alarmed by such an approach, which would leave their children confused and with gaps in their understanding. This however has been the philosophy on character development in many of our schools. Why is the development of character seen as somehow different from the other skills that we teach?
Of course there will always be learning by osmosis(耳濡目染) in any school, but as a teacher and primary school head I have found that a child’s moral literacy is strengthened when they acquire the building blocks of good character such as consideration, courage and honor: qualities which are commonly known as virtue(美德).
I personally find that exploring a virtue over a two-week period provides a simple and effective program that allows for the creative input of both teacher and student and a chance for the virtue to embed(使融入) itself. Once a lesson on a virtue such as honesty has been completed we need to allow time for children to practice this concept just as would be the case with fractions or verbs. Allowing children to role play a situation such as making up excuses to cover a mistake can be enormously interesting, and the drama can be frozen allowing the characters to be questioned about their feelings and motives. (80) It’s also a safe way for children to experience for themselves how a lie usually goes out of control.
Our role as educators is also to look for opportunities to help our students as they attempt to strengthen their characters. When something goes wrong we guide the young person to the virtue that will prevent it from happening again. For instance, when a student thoughtlessly disturbs the calm atmosphere of the library, instead of a response such as, “that was really disrespectful and selfish of you!” we draw out from them the required virtue: “when you’re walking through the library, what virtues do you need to use?”
11 Which of the following is the main idea of this passage?
A Teaching morals and values has been a frequency discussed topic in the past few years.
B The author and his staff embed virtues into lessons and school life to encourage character development in children.
C Kids throughout the population face the same needs, the same challenges, and the same realities in their lives.
D Role plays are an excellent way of getting students to practice their English.
12 We can infer from the first paragraph that _____.
A there tends to be disagreement about what character education is
B most parents are not satisfied with the teaching methods adopted in school
C the approach to character education is generally considered different from the approaches to other skills
D more and more schools are adopting strategies to improve school attendance
13 The word “philosophy” in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to ____.
A study B subject C viewpoint D investigation
14 The author is a ____.
A teacher B librarian C viewpoint D investigation
15 Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as a way to build character in children?
A Story readings and discussions B Osmosis
C Taking every opportunity to teach character
D Role play
16 So much ___ about his ships on the sea that he didn’t sleep for a single minute all night.
A did he worry B he did worry C he worried D worried he
17 His new novel is said ____ into a film last year.
A to make B to have made C to be made D to have been made
18 He tried several times to pass the exam. ___ the end, he succeeded.
A On B In C At D By
19 The report of an earthquake(地震) in the South China Sea has not been __yet.
A conflicted B confused C confined D confirmed
20 The clouds are gathering. We’d better hurry and ___ the department store in case it rains.
A hand in B face up to
C head for D back up
21 There is only one boat ___ for hire. I’m afraid you have to wait for the next one.
A superior B capable
C complicated D available
22 I think fishing is a nice hobby but needs a good deal of _____.
A relation B limitation C strength D patience
23 Finally we made a ___ that I should cook dinner and she would wash up after.
A trip B bargain
C face D fool
24 The old man was found ____ on the floor.
A lying dead B lying death C laying dead D laying death
25 If one ____ a crime, he will be punished.
A makes B commits
C performs D achieves
26 If you insist on doing that, please take me into ____.
A think B thinking
C thought D consideration
27 The letters PTA _____ parent-teacher association.
A stand for B call for
C reach for D care for
28 On ___ side of the street were standing young boys and girls to welcome the President.
A both B two
C either D every
29 Hospital doctors don’t go out very often as their work ___ all their time.
A takes away B takes in
C takes over D takes up
30 The ___ of blood always makes him sick.
A sight B view
C look D form
31 She sent her application to the university last week, but __ any response up to now.
A didn’t receive
B weren’t receiving
C hadn’t received
D hasn’t received
32 ___ by the teacher in class, John felt quite depressed and kept silent the whole evening.
A Criticizing B To criticize
C Criticized D Having criticized
33 I’d play football with you now if I ____ ten years younger.
A am B be
C had been D were
34 All the books, ___ had some pictures in them, were sent to the little girl.
A which B that
C who D whose
35 It is known that ____ Galileo invented ____ telescope.
A the …the B /…the
C a …./ D the….a
36 The silk produced in Hangzhou feels extremely ___.
A soft B softly
C softness D softy
37 Not a single mistake ___ in the test.
A he made B did he make
C he has made D made he
38 Wound you mind ___ a photo of you?
A me take B to make
C my taking D me to take
39 The lady treats the boy next door well as if he ___ her own son.
A is B was
C were D would be
40 The city ___ I was born is on the new railway line.
A which B that
C on which D where
41 It ___ yesterday, for the ground is still wet now.
A must have rained
B was raining
C rained D had rained
42 If Professor Jones arrives tomorrow, either you or I ___ to meet him at the airport.
A are B is C am D were
43 ____ with the size of the whole earth, the highest mountain doesn’t seem high at all.
A When compared B Compare
C While comparing D Comparing
44 On this special occasion I’d like to express my ___ wishes for your future happiness.
A obvious B sincere
C hopeful D honest
45 He doesn’t spend much time ___ his homework.
A in B with C on D for
46 He is such strong a man that he can lift ten stones like this one.
47 It was until after his death that he was recognized as a great composer.
48 Get to the top of the hill, but you will see the whole city.
49 Is that the reason because you are in favor of the proposal?
50 There was so much noise in the room that I could hardly hear myself to think.
51 When Daddy will come back, I am going to tell him everything about your poor performance at school.
52 Some people like to eat apples, but others prefer bananas for apples.
53 Most tree frogs change colors from time to time to fit in with its environment.
54 As a slow student, Jane hasn’t finished her test in time, is she?
55 There are only two things worth to read in this newspaper--- the TV listings and the sports page.
Life as a woman in the colonial（殖民的）America seems quite different from it is today. Women were considered inferior to men, a fact 56 in tradition, law, and religion. Their place was in the home, 57 they were to serve as devoted wives and mothers. They were therefore considered unfit to operate 58 political beings and unable to 59 the benefits of citizenship given to men. Very few women 60 a college education, secured a well-paid job, or pursued a fruitful career. Other than marrying well, they could do 61 to improve their economic status.
62 their secondary status, women 63 play a central role in developing, civilizing, and advancing the nation long before the United States gained its independence 64 Great Britain. During the colonial period, they made great contributions to family and community. They worked alongside their husbands 65 family survival demanded that chores(杂事) be shared by all. Women helped to sow, plant, and harvest crops. They 66 pigs and chickens, planted gardens and milked cows. This need for shared male and female labor 67 a constant theme(主题) as families moved to the frontier, where all family members’ having to work 68 essential.
69 scholars still debate the nature of white women’s standing during the colonial period, many of them admit that colonial women 70 some standing in their families and communities 71 their contributions were so essential. A woman might 72 chores in the home but also assist her husband in 73 a newspaper or a store. But this cooperative(合作的) approach did not translate into 74 rights for women; instead, it 75 the realities and uncertainties of colonial life.
56 A rooted B rooting
C caused D causing
57 A that B which
C when D where
58 A for B as
C in D along
59 A view B start
C enjoy D spread
60 A trained B designed
C acquired D studied
61 A fewer B few
C less D little
62 A In spite of B In place of C Instead of D In need of
63 A do B did C were D was
64 A for B with C to D from
65 A since B before
C although D while
66 A raised B rose
C arose D aroused
67 A hesitated B sacrificed C remained D changed
68 A improved B proved
C swelled D founded
69 A After B Since
C Although D Because
70 A switched B balanced C spared D achieved
71 A because B before
C although D while
72 A thrive B perform
C supply D process
73 A reading B requiring C buying D running
74 A loyal B equal
C upright D proud
1—5 A C D B B 6—10 D C B C D
11—15 B C C A A
16—20 A D B D C 21—25 D D B A B 26—30 D A C D A
31—35 D C D A B 36---40 A B C C D 41---45 A C A B C
46---50 A A C C D 51—55 A D D D B
56---60 A D B C C 61---65 D A B D D 66---70 A C B C D
71—75 A B D B C
81. I spent about two hours in reading and replying emails yesterday.
82. Do you know the man who gave a lecture yesterday？
83. She has already invited us to her birthday party.
84. I will call you the moment I get there.
85. She was promoted to the position of manager last year.